Cordyceps, the Medicinal Mushroom Superfood by Jeffrey Dach MD

 

Mountain biking Cordyceps Sinensis John Holiday  Cordyceps, the Energy Superfood

by Jeffrey Dach MD

Alfredo is a 60 year old sport cyclist who rides his bike 200 miles a week. Yet, he finds his endurance declining over the past few years. He finds he lags behind on trips and is no longer able to keep up with the younger guys in his group. Alfredo's friend suggested a visit to my office to find the problem.

Alfredo was sent to the lab for a complete evaluation including a testosterone level. The results showed his testosterone level was actually quite good, so instead, I instead suggested an energy super food called Cordyceps Sinensis. He agreed to try it, and two weeks later, an amazed Alfredo reported his endurance has improved and he is riding faster and farther than before, thanks to the Cordyceps. Rather than lagging behind, he is now the leader of the pack.

Left Image: sport cyclists mountain biking courtesy of wikimedia commons

What is Cordyceps Sinensis ?

Medicinal Value of Caterpillar Fungus Cordyceps sinensis  Cordyceps Sinensis is a chinese medicinal mushroom, and is actually a type of "energy vitamin". Cordyceps was originally discovered centuries ago by Yak herders of the Tibetan mountains, who observed the goats and Yaks displaying energetic behavior after grazing on the wild Cordyceps sprouts in early spring. The Cordyceps Sinensis grows wild at 16,000 feet, as a parasite inside a caterpillar of the Himalayan Bat Moth. In the early spring, the Cordyceps sends sprouts up from the ground, arising from the head of the caterpillar host.(left image)

Left image: exposed view of Cordyceps growing from head of caterpillar in mountains of Tibet, Image Courtesy of John Holliday On the Trail of the Yak

Held in Esteem by Chinese Medicine

Cordyceps was held in high esteem and used over the centuries by Chinese Medicine.  Because native wild Cordyceps is rare and costly, its use was restricted to the Emperor and Chinese Imperial Court.  However, more recently, a few decades ago, mass consumption has become a reality with commercial production of cultivated strains. (4-9)

Increases Athletic Stamina and Endurance

Athletes use Woman with Yak at Qinghai Lake with Cordyceps SinensisCordyceps as a favorite supplement for endurance and stamina. Research studies show Cordyceps increases ATP energy production, and increases oxygen utilization.  Studies on lab mice using  in-vivo NMR  (Nuclear Magnsetic Resonance) show Cordyceps treated mice have increased ATP production in the Liver.  ATP is Adenosine Tri-Phosphate, the currency of energy in the cell, so this means increased energy in the liver.  Another mouse study showed Cordyceps treated mice have better liver function, and will clear injected carbon particles from the blood stream more rapidly. (10-12)

Above Left image is a Tibetan woman with a Yak courtesy of wikimedia commons.


The Mouse Swim Test

A simple way to measure if Cordyceps increases energy is the "mouse swim test".  This is a test in which mice are placed in a tank of water with steep sides and allowed to swim until exhausted.  The Cordyceps treated mice swim longer than placebo treated mice. See chart below:
Chart showing Mouse Swim Test Results With Cordyceps Sinensis

Above Chart:Mouse swim Test shows longer swim times (red) for Cordyceps Treated Mice compared to placebo (green) treated mice. (47) 

Chart courtesy of Medicinal Value of the Caterpillar Fungi Species of the Genus Cordyceps (Ascomycetes). A Review  International Journal of Medicinal Mushrooms, 10(3):219–234 (2008) 1521-9437/08/ BY John Holliday* & Matt Cleaver Aloha Medicinals Inc., Carson City, NV 89706, USA .  Actual Chart is from Medicinal Value of Mizuno, T., 1999. Medicinal effects and utilization of Cordyceps (Fr.)(Ascomycetes) and Isaria Fr. (Mitosporic fungi) Chinese caterpillar fungi, “Tochukaso”(review). I. J. Med. Mushr., 1: 251-62.

Protecting the Liver from Chemical Injury and Viral Hepatitis B

Two human studies showed Cordyceps treates patients with 
chronic hepatitis B,  improving liver function, reducing antibody levels,  and raising serum albumin levels. (13)(14)  In an experimental mouse model of chemical injury to the liver with carbon tetrachloride, Cordyceps sinensis inhibited the onset of chronic liver disease by inhibiting hepatic fibrosis, and improving liver function. (15)

Cordyceps Reduces Fatigue and Improves Exercise Performance in the Elderly

A study of elderly patients showed that Cordyceps enhances aerobic capability, endurance performance, and exercise metabolism in healthy elderly humans. (16)  Another study of 20 healthy elderly human subjects receiving Cordyceps showed a 10% increase in metabolic threshold (above which lactate accumulates), and an 8.5% increase in ventilatory threshold (above which unbuffered H(+) stimulates ventilation). (17)  Cordyceps was found to have a strong anti-oxidant effect (19)(20)

Cordyceps is Beneficial for Chronic Renal Disease

Thirty patients with chronic kidney failure used Cordyceps, with improvement in creatinine clearance rate, reduced blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and serum creatinine(SCr). The combined treatment of Cordyceps and Jin Shui Bao to a chronic kidney failure patient, showed decreased serum BUN and Cr levels, and reduction in the urine protein and blood pressure. (67)

Cordyceps was given to Sixty One systemic lupus erythematus patients with renal involvement under treatment with cyclophosphamide and the cordyceps prevented renal function deterioration and decreased the proteinuria. (67)

Sixty nine renal transplant patients receiving with cyclosporine induced nephro-toxicity were divided randomly divided into two groups. Control group received cyclosporin only and the another group received cyclosporin and cordyceps (3g/per day). Theresults showed that the cordyceps group had decreased serum BUN and Creatinine  levels. (67)

In an another report, mice treated with cyclosporine-A and cordyceps significantly reduced interstitial edema tubular necrosis and fibrosis compared to the group which received only cyclosporin A. (67)

Modern Drugs Come From the Fungal World

Many of our modern day drugs originate from nature, from the plant world and the microbial world of fungi and bacteria.  About ten of the top twenty drugs used today originate in the fungal world.  Examples include antibiotics such as penicillin, cholesterol lowering statin drugs such as lipitor,  immunosuppresive drugs such as cyclosporin, and psycho-active drugs such as LSD.  These all originated in fungi.(1)(2)(3)

Cordyceps- A treasure Trove of Bio-Active Substances

The Cordyceps species is a treasure trove of bio-active and potentially useful medicinal substances, only recently coming under the scrutiny of university and pharmaceutical researchers looking for the next wonder drug. (45)(46)(47)

Cordyceps -Entomopathogenic Fungus

The Corcyceps Fungi are unique because they live inside various insect hosts.  The name for this is "entomopathogenic fungus"  There are about 600 species of Cordyceps Fungi, each one lives in a different insect and capable of manufacturing a different spectrum of bio-active substances.  Some live inside ants.(56-61)

Watch Video of a Cordyceps Species in the Ant World




More Mouse Studies

in a mouse model of hypoxia induced pulmonary hypertension, Cordyceps sinensis suppressed proliferation of rat pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells indicating benefit in pulmonary hypertension.(18)  In a mouse model of middle cererbral artery ischemia, cordyceps protected the brain from ischemia reperfusion injury(21)  Another study showed Cordyceps useful in reducing blood pressure. (22)   Cordyceps treated mice showed prolonged survival under hypoxic conditions indicating better oxygen utilization.  In a mouse model of epinephrine induced pulmonary edema, the Cordyceps treated mice had marked reduction of only 20% mortality compared to 80% mortality for untreated mice.(8) Cordyceps improved memory and learning in aged mice.(42)

Diabetes and Blood Sugar Regulation

Cordyceps was found beneficial in diabetic rats by reducing blood sugar and weight (23) Cordyceps was found to have a hypoglycemic activity in genetic diabetic mice by improving liver metabolsm of glucose. (24)(25)(26)

Cordyceps has Anti-Inflammatory Effects

Cordyceps was found to have an anti-inflammatory effect and possibly useful in neurodegenreative disorders. (27)

Corcepts Benefits in Asthma

In a mouse model, asthma was induced by sensitization to intraperitoneal injection of (i.p.) of egg protein. The Cordyceps reduced the undesirable immune responses and/or cytokine expression exhibited in asthma. (28)

Benefits for Auto-Immne and Kidney Probelems in Mice

In a mouse model of adriamycin induced renal toxicity, Cordyceps sinensis reduced the proteinuria, improved renal function, and markedly inhibited glomerular sclerosis in a mouse model of renal failure. (30)(31)(32)(39)(40)(41)  In other mouse studies, Cordyceps protected against cyclosporin induce real toxicity, and prevented renal complications in a mouse model of auto-immune lupus nephritis. (64)(65)(67)(68)

Protecting the Bone Marrow from Injury from Radiation and Chemotherapy

A number of studies have shown that Cordyceps protects patients from the toxic effects of chemotherapy and radiation with more rapid recovery of WBC (white blood cell) counts in Cordyceps treated patients.(62)(66)

Financial Disclosure: I receive no compensation from and have no financial interest in Aloha Medicinals or any other Cordyceps manufacturer.  We do carry the Aloha Medicinals Cordyceps product in our office which is available as a convenience, and sold only to our own clinic patients.  We do mark up the wholesale price slightly to cover our costs.  We so not sell to the public at large.

Jeffrey Dach MD
7450 Griffin Road
Dania, Fl 33021
954-983-1443
http://www.jeffreydach.com  
http://www.drdach.com  
http://www.naturalmedicine101.com  
http://www.truemedmd.com  


Links and References

Fungi in Medicine

(1)
http://www.fungi4schools.org/Reprints/Mycologist_articles/Post-16/Medical/V11pp165-167finding_new_medicines.pdf
Exploiting the Fungi: Novel Leads to New Medicines David Langley 1997

(2)http://www.fungi4schools.org/Reprints/slayers/Chapter_05_Fungi_in_medicine.pdf

http://books.google.com/books?id=fVJoFA_czYYC
Slayers, saviors, servants, and sex: an exposé of kingdom fungi By David Moore 2001
Fungi in Medicine

(3) http://bugs.bio.usyd.edu.au/learning/resources/Mycology/UsesOf_Fungi/industrialProduction/fungalDrugs.shtml

Fungi are extraordinarily important to managing disease in humans and other animals. At the beginning of the 21st century, Fungi were involved in the industrial processing of more than 10 of the 20 most profitable products used in medicine. Two anti-cholesterol statins, the antibiotic penicillin and the immunosuppressant cyclosporin A are among the top 10. Each of these has a turn over in excess of $1 billion annually. Drug discovery continues. The following have recently been approved for human use: Micafungin is an antifungal agent; mycophenolate is used to prevent tissue rejection; rosuvastatin is usd to reduce cholesterol; and cefditoren as an antibiotic.

Cordyceps

Alan Miller Articles



(4) http://www.nwbotanicals.org/nwb/lexicon/cordyceps_studies.htm
A Review of Medical Studies with CORDYCEPS sinensis Alan Miller
Cordyceps Improves the Respiratory Function,increases cellular Oxygen Absorption by up to 40% , Improves Stamina and Athletic Performance

(5) http://pharmaceuticalmushrooms.nwbotanicals.org/cordycepssinensisheaa.pdf
LAB-GROWN CORDYCEPS SINENSIS HYBRID: A Nano-processed Medicinal Mushroom that Really Delivers By Richard Alan Miller, 2005
Widely used for more energy, enhanced libido, sports and work performance;
VIRTUALLY EVERY PROFESSIONAL ATHLETE USES CORDYCEPS

Lexus Magazine

(6) http://www.richardalanmiller.com/cmsmiller/NEXUS.pdf
(6A) http://www.10teva.com/pro/1603cordyceps.pdf 

THE CORDYCEPS SINESIS by Alan Miller Lexus Magazine April 2009 Lexus Mag

ZHU, GEORGES M. HALPERN, M.D., Ph.D., and KENNETH JONES

(7) http://www.liebertonline.com/doi/abs/10.1089/acm.1998.4.3-289
The Scientific Rediscovery of an Ancient Chinese Herbal Medicine: Cordyceps sinensis Part I, Jia-Shi Zhu, Georges M. Halpern, Kenneth Jones. The Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine. Fall 1998, 4(3): 289-303. (Server Link)

(8)http://pharmaceuticalmushrooms.nwbotanicals.org/lexicon/cordyceps/rediscoveryprt1.htm
Scientific Rediscovery of an Ancient Chinese Herbal Medicine: Cordyceps sinensis Part I
JIA-SHI ZHU, M.D., Ph.D.,(1,2) GEORGES M. HALPERN, M.D., Ph.D.,(3) and KENNETH JONES .

Preclinical animal studies. The effects of Cordyceps extracts on the energy state of mouse liver were examined using in vivo serial 3]p NMR spectroscopy. After mice were given water extracts of Cs-4 (0.2 or 0.4 g/kg) orally for 7 days, the ratio of adenosine triphosphate (ATP): inorganic phosphate (Pi) in the liver was significantly increased by an average of 45% to 55%, as compared with the placebo control group (both p < 0.001 ) (Xu CF, Bao TI', He CH, Zhu JS, Chang J, manuscript in preparation). The elevated ATP ratios returned to the baseline levels 7 days after Cs-4 treatment was discontinued. Similarly, during a 3-week intra- gastric treatment of mice with water extracts of another mycelial fermentation product, SMIH8819 (0.2 g/kg per day), there was a consistent increase in the ratio of ATP in the liver (Manabe et al., 1996). This increase, observed after 1 week of treatment, was maintained throughout the study and was significantly greater than that of control groups.

In addition to the promotion of higher bioenergy levels by Cordyceps, researchers examined oxygen consumption by mice and their ability to survive after Cs-4 therapy in a hypoxic environment, to elucidate the effects of Cs-4 on oxygen utilization efficiency (Lou et al.,1986). Under conditions of stimulation of oxygen consumption by a subcutaneous injection of isoprenaline (300 ,ug/kg), Cs-4 extract (equivalent to crude Cs- 4, 5 g/kg, J.p., or 10g/kg, i.g.) significantly reduced oxygen consumption by the mice by 41% to 49% within 10 minutes and by 30% to 36% in the second 10 minutes, as compared with controls (all p <0.001) (Lou et al., 1986). In a low-oxygen environment, the mice lived 2 to 3 times longer after the Cs-4 treatment (all p < 0.001). The Cs-4- induced reduction of oxygen consumption and the prolonged survival of treated animals in a hypoxic environment indicated a more efficient use of oxygen to support essential physiological activities of organs/tissues and greater tolerance to hypoxia-induced acidosis than that of the controls.

A more vigorous study was conducted using an in vivo mouse model of epinephrine- induced acute pulmonary edema, which causes systemic anoxia, acidosis, and death (Wan and Zhang, 1985). It was noted that mice treated with Cs-4 (6 g/kg, J.g.) had a significantly greater survival rate: 20% mortality at 30 minutes after epinephrine treatment compared with 80% mortality in the control group (p =0.011); 60% mortality at 60 and 90 minutes after epinephrine treatment compared with 100% mortality in the control
group (p = 0.043).

Jia-Shi Zhu, Georges M. Halpern, Kenneth Jones.

(9)http://www.liebertonline.com/doi/abs/10.1089/acm.1998.4.429
The Scientific Rediscovery of a Precious Ancient Chinese Herbal Regimen: Cordyceps sinensis Part II , Jia-Shi Zhu, Georges M. Halpern, Kenneth Jones. The Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine. Winter 1998, 4(4): 429-457. doi:10.1089/acm.1998.4.429. 
Part II concludes the series with a review of C. sinensis in preclinical in vitro and in vivo studies, and open-label and double-blinded clinical trials on the respiratory, renal, hepatic, cardiovascular, immunologic, and nervous systems, and its effects on cancer, glucose metabolism, inflammatory conditions, and toxicological studies.

Activation of Liver Function

(10)  http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10361894

(10A) http://omni-health.net/Cordyceps/Docs/Cord_activation_Kupffer_cells_eng.pdf
Jpn J Pharmacol. 1999 Apr;79(4):505-8. Activation of in vivo Kupffer cell function by oral administration of Cordyceps sinensis in rats. Nakamura K, Yamaguchi Y, Kagota S, Shinozuka K, Kunitomo M. Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Mukogawa Women's University, Nishinomiya, Japan.

Abstract
We investigated the effect of water extracts of Cordyceps sinensis (WECS) on Kupffer cell function in rats. Rats were received a single i.v. injection of a colloidal carbon solution and then the clearance rate from the blood were measured. The rats had been daily administered with WECS, p.o. at a dose of 200 mg/kg for 25 days until the day before the injection of colloidal carbon. The half-life of the colloidal carbon in the blood of rats administered WECS 200 mg/kg was significantly shorter than that of the control rats. This suggests that accelerated function of Kupffer cells is partially involved in the anti-metastatic action of WECS.

ATP Production in Liver - Mouse In Vivo NMR Imaging

(11)  http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10743500
Effects of the mycelial extract of cultured Cordyceps sinensis on in vivo hepatic energy metabolism in the mouse. Manabe, N.; Sugimoto, M.; Azuma, Y.; Taketomo,N.; Yamashita, A.; Tsuboi, H.; Tsunoo, A.; Kinjo,N.; Nian-Lai, H.; Miyamoto, H.

Mice were given the extract of cultured Cordyceps sinensis (Cs) (200 mg/kg daily, p.o.) for 3 weeks. In vivo phosphorus-31 nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectra of the liver were acquired at weekly intervals using a surface coil. From 1 to 3 weeks, a consistent increase in the ATP/inorganic phosphate ratio, which represents the high energy state, was observed in the Cs extract-treated mice


(12) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11439844
J Altern Complement Med. 2001 Jun;7(3):231-40.
CordyMax Cs-4 improves steady-state bioenergy status in mouse liver. Dai G, Bao T, Xu C, Cooper R, Zhu JS.

Adult male C57-BL/6 mice were given an aqueous extract of CordyMax, 200 or 400 mg/kg per day or placebo for 7 days. OUTCOME MEASUREMENTS: Using 31P-NMR spectroscopy to measure cellular triphosphates and inorganic phosphate, expressed as a ratio to a reference peak, and calculate tissue pH. CONCLUSION: CordyMax is effective in improving bioenergy status in the murine liver, suggesting a mechanism underlying the known clinical effectiveness of CordyMax in alleviating fatigue and improving physical endurance, especially in elderly subjects.


Liver Hepaitis B

(13) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1693509
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi. 1990 Jan;15(1):53-5, 65. [Short-term curative effect of cultured Cordyceps sinensis (Berk.) Sacc. Mycelia in chronic hepatitis B] Zhou L, Yang W, Xu Y, Zhu Q, Ma Z, Zhu T, Ge X, Gao J. Shanxi Liver Diseases Research Co-operation Group. 33 cases of chronic hepatitis B. patients treated with cultured Cordyceps sinensis mycelia have shown that the drug improves the liver function, promotes negative transfer HBsAg, and markedly helps to raise plasma albumin, resist high gamma globulin and to adjust body immunocompetence. It is therefore suggested that cultured Cordyceps sinensis mycelia may be used as a medicine for chronic hepatitis B. patients in adjusting protein metabolism and correcting inversion of albumin and globulin.

(14) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12212155
Hunan Yi Ke Da Xue Xue Bao. 2000 Jun 28;25(3):248-50. Effects of cordyceps sinensis on T lymphocyte subsets and hepatofibrosis in patients with chronic hepatitis B] Gong HY, Wang KQ, Tang SG. Department of Infectious Disease, Third Affiliated Hospital, Hunan Medical University, Changsha 410013.

Abstract
In order to find an effective drug to cure patients with chronic hepatitis B, cordyceps sinensis had been used to treat 25 patients with chronic hepatitis B. The comprehensive index, including T lymphocyte subsets (CD4, CD8), hyaluronic acid(HC) and precollagen type III(PC III), were observed before and after treatment. After 3 months of treatment, CD4 and CD4/CD8 ratio increased significantly(P < 0.05), while HA and PC III decreased significantly(P < 0.05) compared with the control. The results suggest that the beneficial effects might be obtained by using cordyceps sinensis to adjust the T lymphocyte subsets level and to treat hepatic fibrosis on patients with chronic hepatitis B.

Cordyceps Inhibits Hepatic Fibrosis

(15) http://www.wjgnet.com/1007-9327/9/529.pdf 
Inhibitive effect of cordyceps sinensis on experimental hepatic fibrosis and its possible mechanism World J Gastroenterol 2003;9(3):529-533 Yu-Kan Liu, Wei Shen, Department of Gastroenterology, the Second affiliated hospital, Chongqing University of Medical Sciences, Chongqing 400010, China


Enhances exercise in elderly

(16)  Zhu,
J.-S.; Rippe, J. CordyMax enhances aerobic capability, endurance performance, and exercise metabolism in healthy, mid-age to elderly sedentary humans. Proceedings of the American Physiological Society’s (APS) Annual Scientific Conference, Experimental Biology, Washington, DC, Convention Center, April 17–21, 2004.

Exercise performance in elderly

(17)
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20804368

J Altern Complement Med. 2010 May;16(5):585-90. Effect of Cs-4 (Cordyceps sinensis) on exercise performance in healthy older subjects: a double-blind, placebo-controlled trial.Chen S, Li Z, Krochmal R, Abrazado M, Kim W, Cooper CB.Center for Human Nutrition, University of California, Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA 90095, USA.

OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to examine the effect of Cs-4 (Cordyceps sinensis) on exercise performance in healthy elderly subjects.DESIGN: Twenty (20) healthy elderly (age 50-75 years) subjects were enrolled in this double-blind, placebo-controlled, prospective trial. The subjects were taking either Cs-4 333 mg or placebo capsules 3 times a day for 12 weeks. MEASUREMENT: Subjects received baseline screening including physical examination and laboratory tests. Maximal incremental exercise testing was performed on a stationary cycle ergometer using breath-by-breath analysis at baseline and at the completion of the study. RESULTS: After receiving Cs-4 for 12 weeks, the metabolic threshold (above which lactate accumulates) increased by 10.5% from 0.83 +/- 0.06 to 0.93 +/- 0.08 L/min (p < 0.02) and the ventilatory threshold (above which unbuffered H(+) stimulates ventilation) increased by 8.5% from 1.25 +/- 0.11 to 1.36 +/- 0.15 L/min. Significant changes in metabolic or ventilatory threshold were not seen for the subjects in the placebo group after 12 weeks, and there were no changes in Vo(2) max in either group. CONCLUSION: This pilot study suggests that supplementation with Cs-4 (Cordyceps sinensis) improves exercise performance and might contribute to wellness in healthy older subjects.

Suppresses Hypoxia induced pulmonary hypertension

(18) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20844807
Saudi Med J. 2010 Sep;31(9):974-9. Cordyceps sinensis extract suppresses hypoxia-induced proliferation of rat pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells.Gao BA, Yang J, Huang J, Cui XJ, Chen SX, Den HY, Xiang GM.Department of Respiratory Medicine China.

Our results therefore, provided novel evidence that C. sinensis extract may be used as a therapeutic reagent in the treatment of hypoxic pulmonary hypertension.

Potent Antioxidant Activity 

(19) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11114006
Phytother Res. 2000 Dec;14(8):647-9.
Antioxidant activity of the extracts from fruiting bodies of cultured Cordyceps sinensis. Yamaguchi Y, Kagota S, Nakamura K, Shinozuka K, Kunitomo M. Department of Pharmacology, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Mukogawa Women's University, Nishinomiya 663-8179, Japan.

Cordyceps sinensis is one of the most valued herbs in traditional Chinese medicine. We investigated the antioxidant activities of the cultured fruiting bodies of Cordyceps sinesis. The water and ethanol extracts of Cordyceps sinensis were found to possess a potent antioxidant activity. The scavenging effects of the extracts on superoxide were very weak, but the extracts moderately inhibited malondialdehyde formation via hydroxyl radical induced by SIN-1, a peroxynitrite generator. Of the extracts examined, the hot water extract (70 degrees C for 5 min) showed the greatest oxygen free radical scavenging activity. Also, when low-density lipoprotein (LDL) was incubated with macrophages in the presence of CuCl2 (1 microM), the hot water extract showed a strong inhibitory effect against lipid peroxidation in the medium and consequent accumulation of cholesteryl ester in macrophages. Their activities were comparable to that of authentic Cu/Zn SOD. These results suggest that the extracts of cultured Cordyceps sinensis possess potent antioxidant and anti-lipid peroxidation activities and inhibit accumulation of cholesteryl ester in macrophages via suppression of LDL oxidation.

Potent Anti oxidant

(20) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21043033
Phytother Res. 2010 Oct 29. doi: 10.1002/ptr.3320. Protective effect of a polysaccharide isolated from a cultivated Cordyceps mycelia on hydrogen peroxide-induced oxidative damage in PC12 cells. Shen W, Song D, Wu J, Zhang W. Jiangsu Key Laboratory of Molecular Medicine, Medical School and State Key Laboratory of Pharmaceutical Biotechnology, Nanjing University, Nanjing 210093, China.

Abstract
Cordyceps sinensis as a well-known traditional Chinese tonic has many therapeutic functions. In the present study, an acid polysaccharide (APS) was isolated from cultivated Cordyceps mycelia by ion-exchange and sizing chromatography. The protective capacity of APS against H(2) O(2) -induced oxidative damage in rat pheochromocytoma PC12 cells was investigated by measuring cell viability, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) release, antioxidant enzyme activity, malondialdehyde (MDA) levels and intracellular accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and Ca(2+) . The results demonstrated that pretreatment of PC12 cells with APS, prior to H(2) O(2) exposure, significantly increased the survival of cells and the activities of glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD), and reduced the levels of LDH and MDA. Intracellular accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and Ca(2+) were also inhibited by APS treatment. In conclusion, APS was found to increase the cellular antioxidant defence capacity, thereby protecting PC12 cells against oxidative stress.


Protects from cerebral ischemia - mice

(21) http://www.behavioralandbrainfunctions.com/content/6/1/61
Protective effect of extract of Cordyceps sinensis in middle cerebral artery occlusion-induced focal cerebral ischemia in rats.  Zhenquan Liu , Pengtao Li , Dan Zhao , Huiling Tang  and Jianyou Guo Behavioral and Brain Functions 2010, 6:61

These experimental results suggest that complement Cordyceps sinensis extract is protective after cerebral ischemia in specific way. The administration of CSE significantly reduced focal cerebral ischemic/reperfusion injury. The defense mechanism against cerebral ischemia was by increasing antioxidants activity related to lesion pathogenesis.

Reduces Blood Pressure-  Mice

(22) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10755473
Life Sci. 2000 Feb 25;66(14):1369-76.
Protein constituent contributes to the hypotensive and vasorelaxant activities of Cordyceps sinensis.Chiou WF, Chang PC, Chou CJ, Chen CF. National Research Institute of Chinese Medicine, Taipei, Taiwan, ROC. 

Diabetes- Reduces Blood Sugar - Mice

(23) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15050427
Life Sci. 2004 Apr 23;74(23):2897-908.

The anti-hyperglycemic activity of the fruiting body of Cordyceps in diabetic rats induced by nicotinamide and streptozotocin. Lo HC, Tu ST, Lin KC, Lin SC. Department of Bioscience technology, Chang-Jung Christian University, Tainan, 711, Taiwan.

Little scientific evidence exists to support the numerous herbs used to improve diabetes-related metabolic disorders. Cordyceps, a Chinese herbal medicine with fruiting body and carcass, has been proposed to have multiple medicinal activities. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of fruiting body and carcass of Cordyceps on hyperglycemia. Male Wistar rats administered with placebo (STZ group), 1 g of fruiting body (FB group), 1 g of carcass (CC group), or 1g of fruiting body plus carcass (CF group) of Cordyceps for four weeks (d1 to d28) were injected with nicotinamide (200 mg/kg) and streptozotocin (65 mg/kg) on d15. Animals fed with placebo and injected with saline acted as the controls (CON group). The results showed that water intake (d15 to d29), changes in fasting blood glucose concentration (d15 to d26), and serum concentrations of fructosamine (d29) were significantly greater in the STZ, CC and CF groups than in the CON and FB groups (one-way ANOVA, P < 0.05). The diabetic rats had significantly lower weight gain and higher blood glucose response in oral glucose tolerance test than the control rats; and these changes were significantly reduced by administrating the fruiting body of Cordyceps. Our results revealed that fruiting body, not carcass, of Cordyceps attenuated the diabetes-induced weight loss, polydipsia and hyperglycemia, and these improvements suggest that fruiting body of Cordyceps has a potential to be the functional food for diabetes.

(24) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8850325
Biol Pharm Bull. 1996 Feb;19(2):294-6. Polysaccharides in fungi. XXXVI. Hypoglycemic activity of a polysaccharide (CS-F30) from the cultural mycelium of Cordyceps sinensis and its effect on glucose metabolism in mouse liver. Kiho T, Yamane A, Hui J, Usui S, Ukai S. Gifu Pharmaceutical University, Japan.

A polysaccharide (CS-F30) obtained from the cultural mycelium of Cordyceps sinensis showed potent hypoglycemic activity in genetic diabetic mice after intraperitoneal administration, and the plasma glucose level was quickly reduced in normal and streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice after intravenous administration. Administration of CS-F-30 to normal mice significantly increased the activities of hepatic glucokinase, hexokinase and glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, although the glycogen content in the liver was reduced. Furthermore, CS-F30 lowered the plasma triglyceride level and cholesterol level in mice.

(25)
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12165188
J Altern Complement Med. 2002 Jun;8(3):309-14. CordyMax Cs-4 improves glucose metabolism and increases insulin sensitivity in normal rats. Zhao CS, Yin WT, Wang JY, Zhang Y, Yu H, Cooper R, Smidt C, Zhu JS. Pharmanex Beijing Clinical-Pharmacology Research Center, China.  CordyMax Cs-4 is effective in lowering basal blood glucose and plasma insulin, improving glucose metabolism by enhancing insulin sensitivity, and improving oral glucose tolerance.

insulin sensitivity diabetes

(26) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12165189
J Altern Complement Med. 2002 Jun;8(3):315-23.
A fermentation product of Cordyceps sinensis increases whole-body insulin sensitivity in rats. Balon TW, Jasman AP, Zhu JS.

Anti inflammatory

(27) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20937401
Int Immunopharmacol. 2010 Oct 13.
Anti-inflammatory effects of cordycepin via suppression of inflammatory mediators in BV2 microglial cells. Jeong JW, Jin CY, Kim GY, Lee JD, Park C, Kim GD, Kim WJ, Jung WK, Seo SK, Choi IW, Choi YH. Department of Microbiology, College of Natural Sciences, Pusan National University, Busan 609-735, Republic of Korea.

Cordyceps militaris, a traditional medicinal mushroom, produces the bioactive compound cordycepin (3'-deoxyadenosine). Although cordycepin has been shown to have pharmacological, immunological stimulating, anti-cancer, and anti-inflammatory activities, its activities and cellular mechanisms during microglial activation have yet to be elucidated. Thus, we evaluated the anti-inflammatory effect of cordycepin on the production of inflammatory mediators in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated murine BV2 microglia.  Therefore, cordycepin may be useful in treating neurodegenerative diseases by inhibiting inflammatory mediator production in activated microglia.

Anti-asthma

(28) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20664950
Int J Mol Med. 2010 Sep;26(3):351-6.
Anti-asthmatic activities in mycelial extract and culture filtrate of Cordyceps sphecocephala J201.Heo JC, Nam SH, Nam DY, Kim JG, Lee KG, Yeo JH, Yoon CS, Park CH, Lee SH.Food & Bio-Industry Research Institute, Kyungpook National University, Daegu, Korea.

This study investigated the effects of mycelial extract and culture filtrate of Cordyceps sphecocephala J201 on airway hyper-responsiveness, pulmonary immune cell infiltration, and Th2 cytokine expression in animal models of asthma. After Concanavalin A (Con A) activation of mouse primary spleen cells, the IL-4 and IL-13 cytokine expression were significantly decreased in the presence of the mycelial extract and culture filtrate of Cordyceps sphecocephala J201. The asthma model was induced by sensitization to ovalbumin by intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection treatment in mice. The Cordyceps sphecocephala J201 mycelial extract was injected in order to assess the effects of anti-asthmatic activity by comparing lung cell infiltration in ovalbumin-induced asthmatic mice. The results revealed that the increased IL-4, IL-13 and IL-25 expression were controlled by the mycelial extract and culture filtrate of Cordyceps sphecocephala J201, indicating that the extracts reduced the undesirable immune responses and/or cytokine expression exhibited in asthma.

Medicinal Uses of Cordycepin - 3-de-oxyadenosine

(29)http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16354395
J Pharm Pharmacol. 2005 Dec;57(12):1509-19.
Pharmacological actions of Cordyceps, a prized folk medicine. Ng TB, Wang HX. Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Medicine, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin, New Territories, Hong Kong, China.

Cordyceps species, including C. sinensis, C. militaris, C. pruinosa and C. ophioglossoides, are prized traditional medicinal materials. The aim of this article is to review the chemical constituents and pharmacological actions of Cordyceps species. The chemical constituents include cordycepin (3'-de-oxyadenosine) and its derivatives, ergosterol, polysaccharides, a glycoprotein and peptides containing alpha-aminoisobutyric acid. They include anti-tumour, anti-metastatic, immunomodulatory, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, insecticidal, antimicrobial, hypolipidaemic, hypoglycaemic, anti-ageing, neuroprotective and renoprotective effects. Polysaccharide accounts for the anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, anti-tumour, anti-metastatic, immunomodulatory, hypoglycaemic, steroidogenic and hypolipidaemic effects. Cordycepin contributes to the anti-tumour, insecticidal and antibacterial activity. Ergosterol exhibits anti-tumour and immunomodulatory activity. A DNase has been characterized.

Renal Benefits

Cordyceps protects from Adriamycin induced glomerulosclerosis Mice

(30)http://www.academicjournals.org/ajpp/PDF/pdf2010/July/Song%20et%20al.pdf

The protective effects of Cordyceps sinensis extract on extracellular matrix accumulation of glomerular sclerosis in rats Li-Qun Song*, Yu Si-Ming, Ma Xiao-Peng and Jin Li-Xia
Heilongjiang University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Harbin 150040, China.
Accepted 18 May, 2010 (Server Link)

The objective of the present study is to observe protective effects of Cordyceps sinensis extract on extracellular matrix (ECM) accumulation and explore its therapeutic mechanism. The glomerular sclerosis model was established by unilateral nephrectomy and injecting adriamycin. Then urinary protein, BUN and Scr levels were measured. Renal pathological changes were observed by light microscopy. Immunohistochemistry technique was used to examine expressions of CTGF, FN, Col-IV, PAI-1, and MMP-2. Compared with model group, the urinary protein level in C. sinensis extract group was markedly decreased. BUN and Scr levels in C. sinensis extract group were much lower than model group, and also lower than Fosinopril sodium group. C. sinensis extract produced obviously therapeutic effects on glomerular sclerosis. Immunohistochemical results presented that expressions of CTGF, FN and Col-IV in C. sinensis extract and Fosinopril groups were less than model group. The expression of PAI-1 in C. sinensis extract group was also less than model group, but MMP-2 was more expressed than model group. Taken together, C. sinensis extract could ameliorate glomerular sclerosis by reducing proteinuria, decreasing the expressions of FN, Col-IV, CTGF and PAI-1, and increasing the expression of MMP-2, Thus, C. sinensis extract might be one novel therapeutic drug for chronic kidney diseases

C. sinensis extract can reduce proteinuria, improve renal function, decrease the positive staining of FN, Col-IV, CTGF and PAI-1, and increase the positive staining of
MMP-2, so that extracellular matrix accumulation in rat glomerular sclerosis was markedly inhibited.

(31) http://gurubhagawan.net/refn-articles/Heart/med-herb_part1.pdf
Herbal extracts with potential renal benefits KEN WOJCIKOWSKI Part One 
NEPHROLOGY 2004; 9, 313–318

(32) http://gurubhagawan.net/refn-articles/Herbs/med-herb_part2.pdf

Cordyceps - Renal Effects

(39) NEPHROLOGY 2004;9, 400–405 Review Article Medicinal herbal extracts – renal friend or foe? Part two: Herbal extracts with potential renal benefits KEN WOJCIKOWSKI DAVID W JOHNSON and GLENDA GOBÉ

In this second of two articles regarding the renal toxicities or benefits of medicinal herbs, herbs are reported as being ‘potentially beneficial’ to the kidneys if there is strong in vivo evidence
of renal protection from toxic substances or drugs; potent, specific renal anti-oxidant effects; in vivo cancer antiproliferative effects specific to the kidneys; or in vivo evidence of being beneficial in renal disease or failure. Among the herbs, polyherbal formulae and fungi with  potential renal benefits are Cordyceps sinensis etc.

(40) Chen YP, Liu WZ, Shen LM, Xu SN. Comparisons of fermented Cordyceps mycelia and natural Cordyceps sinesis in treating 30 patients with renal failure. Chin. Tradit. Herbal Drugs 1986; 17:
256–8.

(41) Lu L. Study on effect of Cordyceps sinensis and artemisinin in preventing
recurrence of lupus nephritis. Zhongguo Zhong Xi Yi Jie He Za Zhi Zhongguo Zhongxiyi Jiehe Zazhi/Chinese J. Integrated Traditional Western Med./Zhongguo Zhong Xi Yi Jie He Xue Hui, Zhongguo Zhong Yi Yan Jiu Yuan Zhu Ban 2002; 22: 169–71.

Cordyceps - Renal protective Effect  

(64) http://gurubhagawan.net/refn-articles/Heart/med-herb_part1.pdf
Medicinal herbal extracts renal friend or foe? Part ONE

(65) http://gurubhagawan.net/refn-articles/Herbs/med-herb_part2.pdf
Medicinal herbal extracts – renal friend or foe? Part two: Herbal extracts with potential renal benefits KEN WOJCIKOWSKI 1,2 DAVID W JOHNSON 3 and GLENDA GOBÉ 1

Cordyceps in Renal Disease

(67) http://74.125.155.132/scholar?q=cache:ng875rJjgL4J:scholar.google.com/&hl=en&as_sdt=40000
Int. J. Appl. Sci. Eng., 2005. 3, 3,187
Scientific Basis for Traditional Medicines in Renal Disease  Ching-Yuang Lin* Children’s Hospital, Changhua Christian Hospital, Taiwan;Institute of Medical Research, College of Health Sciences,Chang Jung Christian University, Taiwan

In recent studies, the cordyceps fraction is considered to have potential protecting the liver [18], in improvement ofthe immunity [19]; in protection of cardio-vascular, endocrine and kidney disease [20].There is only limited clinical testing in renaldisease to use cordyceps.

Thirty patients with chronic kidney failure (CRF) in the course ofa research [21], who used cordyceps found creatinine clearance rate and reduced bloodurea nitrogen (BUN) and serum creatinine(SCr). The combined treatment of Cordyceps and Jin Shui Bao to a chronic kidney failure patient, showed decreased serum BUN and Cr levels, and reduction in the urine protein and blood pressure.

In the clinical treatment of 61 systemic lupus erythematus (SEL) with nepritis patients without corticosterone and cyclophospamide showed that after intake of2-4 grams of cordyceps powder and 0.6 gramsof artemisinin for 3 years, prevented renal function deterioration and decreased proteinuria. Also, cordyceps has therapeutic efficacy in the treatment of iatrogenic nephrotoxicity [22].

It has been demonstrated that CScan reduce cyclosporin induced nephrotoxicity. Sixty nine patients with renal transplants received cyclosporine as immunosuppressiveregimens with cyclosporine induced nephro-toxicity were divided randomly divided intotwo groups. Control group received cycloaporin only and the another group received cyclosporin and cordyceps (3g/per day). Theresults showed that the cordyceps group had decreased serum BUN and Cr levels.

In an another report, mice treated with cyclosporine-A and cordyceps significantly reduced interstitial edema tubular necrosis and fibrosis compared to the group which received only cyclosporin A [23]. The preventive mechanism of iatrogenic nephrotoxicityby CS was considered to be the effect of antioxidant [24]. 

Cordyceps- Efficacy in Autoimmune Disease - Effective in Lupus Mouse Model

(68) http://www.journals.elsevierhealth.com/periodicals/ymlc/article/S0022-2143(99)90171-3/abstract

J Lab Clin Med 1999;134:492-500)
Efficacy of a pure compound H1-A extracted from Cordyceps sinensis on autoimmune disease of MRL lpr/lpr mice  Ling-Yu Yang, Ann Chen, Yuh-Chi Kuo, Ching-Yuang Lin

Cordyceps Sinensis (CS) is a traditional Chinese medicine with immunomodulatory effect and is effective in improving the survival of lupus mice. In the present study we isolated a pure compound (H1-A) from CS and investigated its effect on inhibiting autoimmune disease progression in MRL lpr/lpr mice. Our results demonstrated that MRL lpr/lpr mice treated daily with H1-A (40 μg/kg/d orally) for 8 weeks had a progressive reduction in anti-ds-DNA production (optical density value decreased from 0.172 ± 0.009 to 0.112 ± 0.015) when compared with the control group (optical density value increased from 0.141 ± 0.036 to 0.198 ± 0.047). In clinical presentation, the treated group had a reduction in lymphadenopathy, a delayed progression of proteinuria, and an improvement in kidney function. Histologic analysis of kidney tissue indicated that H1-A could inhibit the mesangial proliferation that was evident in lupus nephritis. However, there was no significant change in immune complex deposition. The studies reveal that the pure compound (H1-A) may be potentially useful for treating systemic lupus erythematosus in human patients, and they provide some questions for further investigation of the pathogenesis of systemic lupus erythematosus and lupus nephritis. (J Lab Clin Med 1999;134:492-500)





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(33) http://homepage.mac.com/sweiz/files/article/80-43.pdf
Cordyceps Sinensis Animal, Vegetable or both?
Journal of Chinese Medicine • Number 80 • February 2006 By: Simon Canney Keywords: Dong Chong Xia Cao, Cordyceps sinensis, Yarshagumba, caterpillar, fungus, cordycepin, cyclosporin, Nepal, Tibet, Himalayas, Kidney yang, aphrodisiac, immune system, health supplements.

Cordycepin 3 Deoxy-adenosine AntiFungal Effect

(34) http://aac.asm.org/cgi/content/full/42/6/1424
Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy, June 1998, p. 1424-1427, Vol. 42, No. 6
Antifungal Activity of 3'-Deoxyadenosine (Cordycepin) Alan M. Sugar* and Ronald P. McCaffrey

The antifungal effect was seen with three different Candida isolates: Candida albicans 64, a relatively fluconazole-resistant clinical isolate of C. albicans (MIC, 16 µg/ml), and the fluconazole-resistant Candida krusei. Cordycepin and related compounds may provide another avenue for the discovery of clinically useful antifungal drugs.

Blog articles

(35) http://thebrightesthub.com/health-benefits-and-medicinal-uses-of-cordyceps/

(36) http://hyperionherbs.com/   Brandon Gilbert of Hyperion Herbs

Many studies now indicate that Cordyceps can help the body resist a wide range of pathogenic bacteria, fungi and viruses. Cordyceps is used in Asia to help treat fungus and yeast infections, and intensive research is being conducted at dozens of institutions in China and Japan relating to the potential of Cordyceps to treat certain varieties of cancer.

Summary of Cordyceps Clinical trials

(37) http://omni-health.net/Cordyceps/Docs/Cord_clinicalTrials_summary_2005_eng.pdf
Cordyceps sinensis (CS4) Summary of Clinical Trials Published until 1996 Compiled by Ronnie Ginzburg Ph.D.

(38)http://www.drugs.com/npp/cordyceps.html
Cordyceps Scientific Name(s): Cordyceps sinensis (Berk.) Sacc. Family: Clavicipitaceae
Common Name(s): Cordyceps , aweto , caterpillar fungus , Cs-4 , Dong Chong Xia Cao , keera jhar , keeda ghas , semitake , tochukaso , XinGanBao , yarshagumba , yartsa gunbu , yatsa gunbu , Zhiling

Anti-aging effects- Cordyceps improves memory, learning and anti-oxidants

(42) http://assets0.pubget.com/pdf/18803231.pdf
Phytother Res 23, 116–122 (2009) PHYTOTHERAPY RESEARCH
Antiaging Effect of Cordyceps sinensis Extract Deng-Bo Ji1 Jia Ye1 Chang-Ling Li1, Yu-Hua Wang1, Jiong Zhao1 and Shao-Qing Cai2 1Department of Molecular and Cellular Pharmacology, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Peking University, Beijing, 100191, R.P. China

In conclusion, CSE improved learning and memory in D-galactose-treated mice and promoted sexual function in castrated rats; moreover, CSE improved the activity of antioxidant enzymes. The findings suggest that CSE has an antiaging effect. The antiaging effect of CSE may be related to its antioxidant effects

Cordyceps - isolation and evaluation of PolySacharides

(43) www.ftb.com.hr http: href?>www.ftb.com.hr/47/47-304.pdf
S. ZHONG et al.: Polysaccharides of Cordyceps Species, Food Technol. Biotechnol. 47 (3) 304–312 (2009) Advances in Research of Polysaccharides in Cordyceps Species Shi Zhong1, Huijuan Pan2, Leifa Fan2*, Guoying Lv2, Yongzhi Wu2, Binod Parmeswaran3, Ashok Pandey3 and Carlos Ricardo Soccol4 1Institute of Sericulture, Zhejiang Academy of Agricultural Sciences, CN-310021 Hangzhou, PR China 2Institute of Horticulture, Zhejiang Academy of Agricultural Sciences, CN-310021 Hangzhou, PR China

Cordyceps sinensis (Berk.) Sacc. is one of the well-described fungi that has been used in traditional Chinese medicine for over 700 years. Fungal mycelia contain some polysaccharides that are responsible for their biological activity. C. sinensis has traditionally been cultivated on the high Tibetan plateau as a parasitic fungus growing on caterpillars. However, currently it is being cultivated on some insects and in artificial media. This article deals with the advances in the production, isolation and purification of Cordyceps polysaccharide (CP) in recent years, as well as the structure elucidation and pharmacological action.

John Holliday  Aloha Medicinals

(45) http://www.alohamedicinals.ca/Cordy_Article.pdf
On the Trail of The Yak Ancient Cordyceps in the Modern World - John Holliday Matt Cleaver June 2004

(46) http://www.alohamedicinals.com/cordyceps.pdf 
Cordyceps John Holliday Matt Cleaver Aloha Medicinals Encyclopedia of Dietary Supplements Nov 2005 : Dekker Encyclopedias, Taylor and Francis Publishing John Holliday Matt Cleaver Aloha Medicinals Inc., Santa Cruz, California, U.S.A.Solomon P. Wasser Institute of Evolution, University of Haifa, Mt. Carmel, Haifa, Israel

The Cordyceps organism was discovered by yak herders in the Himalayas of ancient Tibet and Nepal
who, recognizing the ardent behavior of their animals after grazing on Cordyceps at high altitudes in the spring, sought the causal agent.


(47) http://www.alohamedicinals.com/ascomycetes.pdf
International Journal of Medicinal Mushrooms, 10(3):219–234 (2008)
Medicinal Value of the Caterpillar Fungi Species of the Genus Cordyceps (Fr.) Link (Ascomycetes). A Review John Holliday Matt Cleaver Aloha Medicinals Inc., Carson City, NV 89706, USA

Cordyceps increases ATP Production in Liver - Mouse Model
 
(48) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8822093 
Manabe, N.; Sugimoto, M.; Azuma, Y.; Taketomo,N.; Yamashita, A.; Tsuboi, H.; Tsunoo, A.; Kinjo,N.; Nian-Lai, H.; Miyamoto, H. Effects of the mycelial extract of cultured Cordyceps sinensis on in vivo hepatic energy metabolism in the mouse. Jpn J Pharmacol. 1996 Jan;70(1):85-8.

(49) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11439844
J Altern Complement Med. 2001 Jun;7(3):231-40.
CordyMax Cs-4 improves steady-state bioenergy status in mouse liver. Dai G, Bao T, Xu C, Cooper R, Zhu JS.

Allan Miller  

(51) http://pharmaceuticalmushrooms.nwbotanicals.org/cordycepssinensisheaa.pdf
LAB-GROWN CORDYCEPS SINENSIS HYBRID: A Nano-processed Medicinal Mushroom that Really Delivers By Richard Alan Miller, 2005 Widely used for more energy, enhanced libido, sports and work performance; VIRTUALLY EVERY PROFESSIONAL ATHLETE USES CORDYCEPS

INSECT Symbiosis

(52) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2681631
Appl Environ Microbiol. 2009 May; 75(10): 3115–3119.
Negative Fitness Consequences and Transmission Dynamics of a Heritable Fungal Symbiont of a Parasitic Wasp  Cara M. Gibson* and Martha S. HunterCollege of Agriculture and Life Sciences, Department of Entomology, The University of Arizona, Tucson, Arizona 85721-0036

(53) http://www.cals.ncsu.edu/course/ent425/tutorial/circulatory.html
INSECT PHYSIOLOGY CIRCULATORY SYSTEM
About 90% of insect hemolymph is plasma:   a watery fluid -- usually clear, but sometimes greenish or yellowish in color.   Compared to vertebrate blood, it contains relatively high concentrations of amino acids, proteins, sugars, and inorganic ions.   Overwintering insects often sequester enough ribulose, trehalose, or glycerol in the plasma to prevent it from freezing during the coldest winters.   The remaining 10% of hemolymph volume is made up of various cell types (collectively known as hemocytes); they are involved in the clotting reaction, phagocytosis, and/or encapsulation of foreign bodies. 

Liver Hepatitis B

(54) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1693509
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi. 1990 Jan;15(1):53-5, 65. Short-term curative effect of cultured Cordyceps sinensis (Berk.) Sacc. Mycelia in chronic hepatitis B [Article in Chinese] Zhou L, Yang W, Xu Y, Zhu Q, Ma Z, Zhu T, Ge X, Gao J. Shanxi Liver Diseases Research Co-operation Group.

33 cases of chronic hepatitis B
. patients treated with cultured Cordyceps sinensis mycelia have shown that the drug improves the liver function, promotes negative transfer HBsAg, and markedly helps to raise plasma albumin, resist high gamma globulin and to adjust body immunocompetence. It is therefore suggested that cultured Cordyceps sinensis mycelia may be used as a medicine for chronic hepatitis B. patients in adjusting protein metabolism and correcting inversion of albumin and globulin.

(55)  http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12212155
Hunan Yi Ke Da Xue Xue Bao. 2000 Jun 28;25(3):248-50. Effects of cordyceps sinensis on T lymphocyte subsets and hepatofibrosis in patients with chronic hepatitis B]
[Article in Chinese] Gong HY, Wang KQ, Tang SG. Department of Infectious Disease, Third Affiliated Hospital, Hunan Medical University, Changsha 410013.

In order to find an effective drug to cure patients with chronic hepatitis B, cordyceps sinensis had been used to treat 25 patients with chronic hepatitis B. The comprehensive index, including T lymphocyte subsets (CD4, CD8), hyaluronic acid(HC) and precollagen type III(PC III), were observed before and after treatment. After 3 months of treatment, CD4 and CD4/CD8 ratio increased significantly(P < 0.05), while HA and PC III decreased significantly(P < 0.05) compared with the control. The results suggest that the beneficial effects might be obtained by using cordyceps sinensis to adjust the T lymphocyte subsets level and to treat hepatic fibrosis on patients with chronic hepatitis B.

Cordyceps is an important entomopathogenic fungus

Yeast-like endosymbionts (YLSs) of insects 
(56) http://www.bbc.co.uk/nature/genus/Cordyceps
Those compounds are what we call antibiotics. Penicillin, tetracycline, erythromycin,
cephalosporin are all examples of fungi-produced antibiotics. Cordyceps has
a number of different type antibiotics that work on different organisms.”

(57) http://www.fungi4schools.org/Reprints/Mycologist_articles/Post-16/Medical/V11pp165-167finding_new_medicines.pdf

(58) http://www.fungi4schools.org/Reprints/slayers/Chapter_05_Fungi_in_medicine.pdf

(59) http://bugs.bio.usyd.edu.au/learning/resources/Mycology/UsesOf_Fungi/industrialProduction/fungalDrugs.shtml

Fungi are extraordinarily important to managing disease in humans and other animals. At the beginning of the 21st century, Fungi were involved in the industrial processing of more than 10 of the 20 most profitable products used in medicine. Two anti-cholesterol statins, the antibiotic penicillin and the immunosuppressant cyclosporin A are among the top 10. Each of these has a turn over in excess of $1 billion annually. Drug discovery continues. The following have recently been approved for human use: Micafungin is an antifungal agent; mycophenolate is used to prevent tissue rejection; rosuvastatin is usd to reduce cholesterol; and cefditoren as an antibiotic.

(60) http://www.sbs.utexas.edu/mbierner/BIO305E/Lectures,%20etc/Fungi%20V.pdf
Fungi and Human Health: Drugs, Poisons, Pathogens, Allergies

(61) http://nature.berkeley.edu/~tosmunds/files/buenz2005_cordyceps.pdf
Journal of Ethnopharmacology 96 (2005) 19–29 Review
The traditional Chinese medicine Cordyceps sinensis and its effects on
apoptotic homeostasis E.J. Buenza,b, B.A. Bauera,*, T.W. Osmundsonc,d, T.J. Motleyd

Cordyceps protects from Taxol-Induced Leukopenia

(62) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2775070/
Exp Biol Med (Maywood). 2008 April; 233(4): 447–455.
Cordyceps sinensis Health Supplement Enhances Recovery from Taxol-Induced Leukopenia
Wei-Chung Liu,*† Wei-Ling Chuang,* Min-Lung Tsai,* Ji-Hong Hong,‡ William H. McBride,§ and Chi-Shiun Chiang*1

One of these, Cordyceps sinensis (CS), which is a fungal parasite of moth larvae (lepidoptera spp.) in the genera Hepitalus and Thitarodes (8), has been widely used in traditional Chinese medicine. It has been promoted as a popular remedy that is devoid of toxicity for the side effects of cancer treatment (see reviews in [9–11]). A broad spectrum of pharmacologic actions including the modulation of hepatic, renal, cardiovascular, immune, nervous, endocrine, and steroid systems has also been described. At the cellular level, diverse biological effects of CS such as activating macrophages (12), modulating apoptosis (13, 14), and inhibiting tumor metastasis (15, 16) have been reported.

In summary, CS enhances recovery of mice from leukopenia caused by Taxol treatment. It appears to do so by protecting both hematopoietic progenitor cells directly and the bone marrow stem cell niche through its effects on osteoblast differentiation.

(63) http://repositorium.sdum.uminho.pt/bitstream/1822/7896/1/Paterson_Cordyceps%255B1%255D.pdf
Phytochemistry 69 (2008) 1469–1495 
Cordyceps – A traditional Chinese medicine and another fungal therapeutic biofactory? R. Russell M. Paterson * Cordyceps are parasites of insects or fungi, It has been officially classified as a drug in the Chinese Pharmacopoeia since 1964 The fungus is endemic to the alpine habitats of the Tibetan Plateau above 3000 m in south-western China, and there has been large-scale harvesting of the wild material from Nepal and India more recently. the price of natural products of CS is over US$ 12,000 kg1 (2006 prices) for only ‘‘average quality” The fungus has officially been classified as an endangered species by CITES Management Authority of China and China Customers and this scarcity is of considerable concern to all. Consequently, living strains have been isolated from natural CS and cultivated in large quantity by bioreactor technology .  CordyMax Cs-4, a commercial mycelial fermentation product that lowered fasting plasma levels of glucose and insulin, improved oral glucose tolerance and increased the glucose–insulin index, which measures insulin sensitivity, in rats (Zhao et al., 2002).  

The beneficial effects on (a) renal and hepatic function and (b) immunomodulation-related anti-tumour activities are most promising and deserve great attention.

Ng and Wang (2005) review the chemical constituents and pharmacological properties. The chemical constituents include (a) cordycepin (30-deoxyadenosine) and its derivatives,
(b) ergosterol, (c) polysaccharides, (d) a glycoprotein and (e) peptides containing a-aminoisobutyric acid. The activities ascribed to the fungus are anti-tumour, antimetastatic, immunomodulatory, anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, insecticidal, anti-microbial, hypolipidaemic, hypoglycaemic, anti-aging, neuroprotective and renoprotective effects: So a vast a range of properties from a narrow spread of compounds.

Polysaccharides account for the anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, anti-tumour, anti-metastatic, immunomodulatory, hypoglycaemic, steroidogenic and hypolipidaemic effects. Cordycepin contributes to the anti-tumour, insecticidal and anti-bacterial activity. Ergosterol (a universal fungal compound) exhibits anti-tumour and immunomodulatory activity. Finally, a DNase has been characterized.

These are not particularly novel compounds and one wonders why there are so many reports of the effects of crude extracts rather than much more work on the effects of novel pure compounds.
Cordycepin (Fig. 2), 3-deoxyadenosine, is a derivative of the nucleoside adenosine differing from the latter by the absence of oxygen in the 30 position of its ribose entity. As such is may be quite common. Initially, it was extracted from Cordyceps; however, it is now produced synthetically. Some enzymes do not discriminate between adenosine and so it can participate in certain reactions. For example, it can be incorporated into RNA molecules causing premature termination of its synthesis. It is classified as an anticancer
compound.

Cordyceps Protects from Radiation Toxicity to Bone Marrow

(66) http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17149981
Radiat Res. 2006 Dec;166(6):900-7. Protection against radiation-induced bone marrow and intestinal injuries by Cordyceps sinensis, a Chinese herbal medicine. Liu WC, Wang SC, Tsai ML, Chen MC, Wang YC, Hong JH, McBride WH, Chiang CS. Department of Biomedical Engineering and Environmental Sciences, National Tsing Hua University, Hsinchu 30013, Taiwan.

Bone marrow and intestinal damage limits the efficacy of radiotherapy for cancer and can result in death if the whole body is exposed to too high a dose, as might be the case in a nuclear accident or terrorist incident. Identification of an effective nontoxic biological radioprotector is therefore a matter of some urgency. In this study, we show that an orally administered hot-water extract from a Chinese herbal medicine, Cordyceps sinensis (CS), protects mice from bone marrow and intestinal injuries after total-body irradiation (TBI). CS increased the median time to death from 13 to 20 days after 8 Gy TBI and from 9 to 18 days after 10 Gy TBI. Although CS-treated mice receiving 10 Gy TBI survived intestinal injury, most died from bone marrow failure, as shown by severe marrow hypoplasia in mice dying between 18 and 24 days. At lower TBI doses of 5.5 and 6.5 Gy, CS protected against bone marrow death, an effect that was confirmed by the finding that white blood cell counts recovered more rapidly. In vitro, CS reduced the levels of free radical species (ROS) within cells, and this is one likely mechanism for the radioprotective effects of CS, although probably not the only one.

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Medicinal Value of the Caterpillar Fungi Species of the Genus Cordyceps (Fr.)  A Review John Holliday* & Matt Cleaver Aloha Medicinals Inc., Carson City, NV 89706, USA

Jia-Shi Zhu, Georges M. Halpern, Kenneth Jones. The Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine. Fall 1998, 4(3): 289-303. doi:10.1089/acm.1998.4.3-289.

Jia-Shi Zhu, Georges M. Halpern, Kenneth Jones. The Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine. Winter 1998, 4(4): 429-457. doi:10.1089/acm.1998.4.429.

Mizuno, T., 1999. Medicinal effects and utilization of Cordyceps (Fr.) Link (Ascomycetes) and Isaria Fr. (Mitosporic fungi) Chinese caterpillar fungi, “Tochukaso”(review). I. J. Med. Mushr., 1: 251-62.

Illustrations

http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:CordycepsSinensis.jpg

http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/0/07/Cordyceps_Sinensis.jpg

http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Kanchanjanga_peak_of_the_Himalayas_from_Darjeeling.jpg

http://scripts.iucr.org/cgi-bin/paper?vj1055
vj1055contents.gif

you tube videos

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=XuKjBIBBAL8
BBC - Cordyceps: attack of the killer fungi - Planet Earth Attenborough BBC wildlife

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=CCOQ0VU24xw&feature=player_embedded

interview with John Holliday

of aloha mushroom  Cordyceps is a raw marterial originated in tibet for 75 thousand dollars per gram wild type large volume raw material . Brand name  approved as drugs in some countries. Aloha exports to 56 countries. One products for HIV patients is calleded Immunosist 24/7  which is used in African Countries. Broad spectrum antiviral activity is derived from cordyceps. Think about insects like cockroaches which are immune to viral infections.  Insect immunity to viruses comes from a symbiotic relationship with the fungal world. This is cordyceps.  The fungal spores live in the insect as a form of symbiotc pairing which produces antiviral compounds to protect host.  This antiviral activity is effective across species.

For underlying viral illnesses such as Hepatitis, HIV, Herpes shingles,  - Immunossist 24/7 is a mushroom product to consider as a good choice. Another product is called Critical Care Formula used as adjunct for  chemotherapy patients, which helps to keep the WBC up. 

For Neurological disorders, try  Hericium which has a nerve growth compound.

For Diabetes Type Two, use the Levelar Forte product, 2 caps wth start of meals. 

Another product is Clotinase Forte, a Nattokinase product...the most potent version in the world.
This is a fibrinogenic enzyme breaks down clots in an enteric coated capsule and combined with Vitamin K2 - for patients on coumadin, Clotinase will stabilize INR scores.  The Vitamin K allows for stabilization of clotting leab tests such as INR at a lower dose of coumadin.

Cordyceps is popular as an anti-arrythmia agent bevcasue it is related  to adenosine and analogs which are used IV in the hospital as anti-arrythmia agents . Free adenosine, and a family of adenosine analogs are used for controlling arrythmias, and may be given IV

Cordyceps is useful for immune modulation, and may be called the new "antibiotic" of the 21st century which addresses the underlying immune dysfunction and gut dysbiosis commmnly found. The polysaccharides in medicinal mushrooms joins to immune proteins in the gut mucosa. This discovery of these polysccharide molecules is a breakthough in immune science.  Our immune cells may be activated by attachment to protein bound polysacharides supplie ewither by frindly bacteria or by medicinal mushroom supplements.  A deficiency of these immune-polysaccharides is common producing the "immunological scurvy" of today's age.

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There are over 630 different cordyceps species named,depending on which insect it is cohabitating.  It’s no advantage to the symbiont to kill the insect. It has to fool the host insect’s immune system, but not by disabling that system. So, cordyceps has evolved nontoxic compounds, which act as bidirectional immuno-modulators. It up-regulates some aspects of immune function like viral and acterial protection and down-regulates other aspects of immune function

It is a fact that insects do not get viruses. Insects, have in their blood – the
chemolymph -- single-celled yeast-like symbionts, which perform the functions of
red blood cells in higher organisms. They are involved in energy release, nutrient
absorption – the equivalent of red blood cells in higher organisms.
We take these single-celled yeastlike symbionts out of the insect and cultivate
them – THIS IS CORDYCEPS  It is on its way evolutionarily to becoming the red blood cells of the insect and arachnid, and protects them from viral infection.

Cordyceps has one problem. You can’t grow it under 14,000 feet. Or can you? By
simulating a high-altitude environment – low oxygen, low temperature – mycelium
and even fruit can be grown. Hybridization, like in the cultivation of corn for sweetness or potatoes for size and
texture, accentuates target medicinal compounds. Its novel bio-active compounds
have been amplified to 5X potency.

john holliday interview

“[Cordyceps] is a direct-acting antibiotic agent. Since cordyceps lives in insects, it
has evolved quite a comprehensive compliment of compounds, which it
produces, with the sole purpose of keeping the insect healthy. If you consider for a
moment fungi, in general, there a quite a number of interesting things that go on at
that level of organization.

If you have a nice chunk of organic something that hits the ground, like an
apple, everything in the environment competes to use it as a food source –
bacteria, mold, everything. The fungi, in general, have evolved an interesting
mechanism to give themselves an advantage in the food chain. As the mycelium slowly
grows up across the surface of that apple, it exudes certain extracellular compounds out
of the cell walls that stun or kill other microorganisms. So, it has a chance to get
the food.

Those compounds are what we call antibiotics. Penicillin, tetracycline, erythromycin,
cephalosporin are all examples of fungi-produced antibiotics. Cordyceps has a number of different type antibiotics that work on different organisms.”

Overview of the Properties of Cordyceps Sinensis

• Cordyceps Improves the Respiratory Function
• Cordyceps increases cellular Oxygen Absorption
by up to 40%
• Cordyceps Improves the Functioning of the Heart
• Cordyceps Helps Maintain Cholesterol
• Chronic kidney diseases improvement
• Cordyceps Shown to Shrink Tumor Size in Several
Clinical Studies
• Improvements in the Immune System
• Cordyceps Reduces Fatigue
• Cordyceps Improves Stamina and Athletic Performance

ENERGY ENHANCEMENT
Cordyceps is widely used in weightlifting and other sports for enhancing oxygen
utilization. A unique natural ATP pathway increases the concentration of ATP in the
cells, oxygen utilization, etc. We breathe in 20% oxygen, 80% nitrogen; yet, when we
exhale we see about 13% oxygen in the exhaled breath, using only the difference.
After cordyceps, there is only 8 or 9% percent exhaled, so use increases. How
much the person gets from each breath increases about 40%.

Immune Boost
– Improves the Respiratory Function, reduces cough and phlegm, shortness of breath, bronchial discomfort, COPD, and alleviates asthma symptoms.
– Increases NK (Natural Killer) cell activity,
– Fungal derived simple- and protein-bound polysaccharides increase the production of such cytokines as TNF-a, interleukins, and interferons, NO, and antibodies by the activated immune cells
– Has Immunomodulating Effects: bi-directional regulation of immune function, which can be either up-regulated or down-regulated making Cordyceps very useful in adjunct nutritional therapies of such immune-deficient states as found in cancer, hepatitis or HIV infection; and conversely to hyper-immune states such as is found in Lupus, Lymphoma or Rheumatoid arthritis

According to Holliday’s research, repeating the test 2 weeks after cordyceps daily, ATP
concentration goes up 28 to 30% higher…30% more energy is available on
demand. It doesn’t trigger the pathway in the brain that makes you feel like you have
more energy, like amphetamines or ephedra, or sinepherine. With the latter you
erroneously think and feel you have more energy, but eventually it robs you of it.
With ATP increase, you don’t feel like you have more energy, you simply can and do go
further. Though it is rarely discussed for fear it will be outlawed, virtually EVERY
PROFESSIONAL SPORTS FIGURE USES CORDYCEPS!

cordycepin [3’deoxyadenosine]. This is a molecule almost identical to
normal adenosine, with the exception that it is lacking an oxygen atom on the ribose
portion of the molecule at the 3’ position.  In normal mammalian cells, this
insertion of the deoxygenated adenosine is of little importance, as healthy cells have an
inherent DNA repair mechanism. When this sort of error occurs, the altered nucleoside
(the cordycepin) is removed from the string of nucleosides, and a new segment of
adenosine is inserted. However, by their very nature, cancer cells have lost this DNA
repair mechanism. (If they could correct their DNA errors, they would not be cancer
 cells).  This same mechanism of DNA synthesis inhibition is probably the responsible
mechanism for the anti-viral effects seen with cordycepin as well.  

Author information:

Jeffrey Dach MD
7450 Griffin Road
Dania, Fl 33021
954-983-1443
http://www.jeffreydach.com  
http://www.drdach.com  
http://www.naturalmedicine101.com  
http://www.truemedmd.com  

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